A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly on the legitimate use of force within a certain. 5 days ago State Politics news and opinions from The Miami Herald newspaper in South Florida. Welcome to the portal for Ballotpedia's coverage of state politics! Our work covers executive officials, legislative chambers, judiciaries, and ballot measures.
There are local elections on Tuesday and there's been a struggle to find candidates to run in many parts of Colorado. And the problem tends to get worse the further down ballot a race is. It has become increasingly common for politicians at all levels of government to block followers, whether it's for uncivil behavior or merely for expressing a different point of view.
VanValkenburg is part of a surge of Democratic candidates running in Virginia this fall. But many critics say the new maps are just as bad. Demonstrators march in the Texas Capitol in Austin on Monday, protesting the state's newly passed anti-sanctuary cities bill, which empowers police to inquire about people's immigration status during routine interactions such as traffic stops.
A statue of Gen. Lee, as it was removed from its longtime resting place in New Orleans on Friday. Lee's statue was the last of four Confederate monuments to be removed under a City Council vote. He took it back on Monday. The next generation of cell phone technology will be much faster but require far more antennas than carriers currently use.
Spectators look down on the Nevada Assembly on the opening day of the legislative session in Carson City, Nev. But the state has given the amendment's supporters new reason to hope. A police officer votes at Belmont High School on Feb. The state's lawmakers are now debating bills that would tighten residency requirements for new voters. Eric Greitens, shortly before becoming governor of Missouri in January Gas prices seen at an Oklahoma City 7-Eleven in December.
Amid a state budget slump, Oklahoma lawmakers are considering raising gas taxes for the first time in 30 years. Oklahoma is one of about a dozen states seriously considering increases. Mike Dudgeon casts the ceremonial first vote of the new session of the Georgia House of Representatives on Jan. Agriculture and writing are almost everywhere associated with this process: The first known states were created in the Fertile Crescent , India , China , Mesoamerica , the Andes , and others, but it is only in relatively modern times that states have almost completely displaced alternative " stateless " forms of political organization of societies all over the planet.
Initially states emerged over territories built by conquest in which one culture, one set of ideals and one set of laws have been imposed by force or threat over diverse nations by a civilian and military bureaucracy. Since the late 19th century, virtually the entirety of the world's inhabitable land has been parcelled up into areas with more or less definite borders claimed by various states.
Earlier, quite large land areas had been either unclaimed or uninhabited, or inhabited by nomadic peoples who were not organised as states. However, even within present-day states there are vast areas of wilderness, like the Amazon rainforest , which are uninhabited or inhabited solely or mostly by indigenous people and some of them remain uncontacted.
Also, there are states which do not hold de facto control over all of their claimed territory or where this control is challenged. Currently the international community comprises around sovereign states , the vast majority of which are represented in the United Nations. For most of human history, people have lived in stateless societies , characterized by a lack of concentrated authority, and the absence of large inequalities in economic and political power.
It is not enough to observe, in a now rather dated anthropological idiom, that hunter gatherers live in 'stateless societies', as though their social lives were somehow lacking or unfinished, waiting to be completed by the evolutionary development of a state apparatus. Rather, the principal of their socialty, as Pierre Clastres has put it, is fundamentally against the state.
During the Neolithic period, human societies underwent major cultural and economic changes, including the development of agriculture , the formation of sedentary societies and fixed settlements, increasing population densities, and the use of pottery and more complex tools.
Sedentary agriculture led to the development of property rights , domestication of plants and animals, and larger family sizes. It also provided the basis for the centralized state form  by producing a large surplus of food, which created a more complex division of labor by enabling people to specialize in tasks other than food production.
The ruling classes began to differentiate themselves through forms of architecture and other cultural practices that were different from those of the subordinate laboring classes. In the past, it was suggested that the centralized state was developed to administer large public works systems such as irrigation systems and to regulate complex economies. However, modern archaeological and anthropological evidence does not support this thesis, pointing to the existence of several non-stratified and politically decentralized complex societies.
Mesopotamia is generally considered to be the location of the earliest civilization or complex society , meaning that it contained cities , full-time division of labor , social concentration of wealth into capital , unequal distribution of wealth , ruling classes, community ties based on residency rather than kinship , long distance trade , monumental architecture , standardized forms of art and culture, writing, and mathematics and science.
Although state-forms existed before the rise of the Ancient Greek empire, the Greeks were the first people known to have explicitly formulated a political philosophy of the state, and to have rationally analyzed political institutions. Prior to this, states were described and justified in terms of religious myths. Several important political innovations of classical antiquity came from the Greek city-states and the Roman Republic.
The Greek city-states before the 4th century granted citizenship rights to their free population, and in Athens these rights were combined with a directly democratic form of government that was to have a long afterlife in political thought and history. During Medieval times in Europe, the state was organized on the principle of feudalism , and the relationship between lord and vassal became central to social organization.
Feudalism led to the development of greater social hierarchies. The formalization of the struggles over taxation between the monarch and other elements of society especially the nobility and the cities gave rise to what is now called the Standestaat , or the state of Estates, characterized by parliaments in which key social groups negotiated with the king about legal and economic matters.
These estates of the realm sometimes evolved in the direction of fully-fledged parliaments, but sometimes lost out in their struggles with the monarch, leading to greater centralization of lawmaking and military power in his hands. Beginning in the 15th century, this centralizing process gives rise to the absolutist state.
Cultural and national homogenization figured prominently in the rise of the modern state system. Since the absolutist period, states have largely been organized on a national basis.
The concept of a national state, however, is not synonymous with nation state. Even in the most ethnically homogeneous societies there is not always a complete correspondence between state and nation , hence the active role often taken by the state to promote nationalism through emphasis on shared symbols and national identity.
Some states are often labeled as weak or failed. In David Samuels 's words " Migdal have explored the emergence of weak states, how they are different from Western "strong" states and its consequences to the economic development of developing countries. To understand the formation of weak states, Samuels compares the formation of European states in the with the conditions under which more recent states were formed in the twentieth century.
In this line of argument, the state allows a population to resolve a collective action problem, in which citizens recognize the authority of the state and this exercise the power of coercion over them. This kind of social organization required a decline in legitimacy of traditional forms of ruling like religious authorities and replaced them with an increase in the legitimacy of depersonalized rule; an increase in the central government's sovereignty; and an increase in the organizational complexity of the central government bureaucracy.
The transition to this modern state was possible in Europe around thanks to the confluence of factors like the technological developments in warfare, which generated strong incentives to tax and consolidate central structures of governance to respond to external threats. This was complemented by the increasing on the production of food as a result of productivity improvements , which allowed to sustain a larger population and so increased the complexity and centralization of states. Finally, cultural changes challenged the authority of monarchies and paved the way to the emergence of modern states.
The conditions that enabled the emergence of modern states in Europe were different for other countries that started this process later. As a result, many of these states lack effective capabilities to tax and extract revenue from their citizens, which derives in problems like corruption, tax evasion and low economic growth. Unlike the European case, late state formation occurred in a context of limited international conflict that diminished the incentives to tax and increase military spending.
Also, many of these states emerged from colonization in a state of poverty and with institutions designed to extract natural resources, which have made more difficult to form states. European colonization also defined many arbitrary borders that mixed different cultural groups under the same national identities, which has made difficult to build states with legitimacy among all the population, since some states have to compete for it with other forms of political identity.
As a complement of this argument, Migdal gives a historical account on how sudden social changes in the Third World during the Industrial Revolution contributed to the formation of weak states. The expansion of international trade that started around , brought profound changes in Africa, Asia and Latin America that were introduced with the objective of assure the availability of raw materials for the European market. These changes consisted in: As a result, the traditional forms of social control became obsolete, deteriorating the existing institutions and opening the way to the creation of new ones, that not necessarily lead these countries to build strong states.
As a result, these decentralization of social control impedes to consolidate strong states. Quotations related to State at Wikiquote. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see State disambiguation. This article is about the general definition of state.
It is not to be confused with sovereign state. Corporatism and Elite theory. Marx's theory of the state. Social contract and State of nature. Divine right of kings. Neolithic and Copper Age state societies.
Athenian democracy and Roman Republic. Feudalism and Middle Ages. Bureaucracy , Constitution , Corporation , Globalization , and Neoliberalism. It has been thought necessary to quote the Lytton Report at such length since it is probably the fullest and most exhaustive description of an allegedly independent, by 'actually' dependent, i. Recognized as apocryphal in the early 19th century. Le roi ne peut jamais avoit tort, le roi ne peut mal faire , Le Normant, p.
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