A collection of published research articles and other educational resources about sickle cell anemia and CBD (cannabidiol). Pain-related behaviors and neurochemical alterations in mice expressing sickle hemoglobin: Modulation by cannabinoids · Cannabis use in sickle cell disease. Sickle cell anaemia is associated with many different symptoms, including pain. Furthermore, cannabinoids like CBD pose significant.
Anemia Sickle CBD For Cell
The mutation involved in sickle cell disease, as noted above, produces sickle shaped, rigid, and ineffective red blood cells.
For those dealing with sickle cell anemia, the defective hemoglobin, and the resultant form error and rigidity of the red blood cells, reduces the effectiveness of the cell in the transportation of oxygen. We know that much. However, there is an even bigger problem: In terms of identifying the condition, because it comes down to genes, many cases are known before birth. However, to establish it for certain, doctors will simply use a blood test. Interestingly, several European countries advise couples to have an abortion when a fetus in utero is known to have this disease.
Eight out of every ten cases of sickle cell anemia occur in sub-Saharan Africa. The reason is an evolutionary one: Hence, over great swaths of time, individuals living in an area where a disease like malaria is highly prevalent will have a better chance of surviving and reproducing if there circulatory system is seeded with cells and resistant to the disease. Cannabis has been used medicinally for a very long time. People have employed this resinous flower to treat symptoms from minor physical discomfort to epilepsy and arthritis , and now, sickle cell anemia.
Sickle cell anemia is a blood disease. Healthy blood cells are shaped like donuts without a hole. These disc-shaped organisms are small, but contain our genetic code and, more importantly, our oxygen. As the name suggests, sickle cell disease changes the shape of these once disc-like cells into that of crescent moons or sickles. Currently the only potential cure for sickle cell anemia is a bone marrow transplant.
Barring that, treatment options for pain and discomfort include over-the-counter pain relievers, antibiotics for infections, and Hydroxyurea, which is commonly prescribed to leukemia and cancer patients.
For sickle cell patients, Hydroxyurea can help prevent the formation of the sickle-shaped blood cells and reduce pain frequency, although it causes major side effects nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, sores, dizziness, diarrhea, hair loss, seizures and can actually increase risk of infection. Who is affected by this illness, and how expensive is treatment of sickle cell anemia? Table 1 shows the major epidemiological and clinical feature of the patients studied. Although the number of males who used cannabis was 2.
Moreover, the ages of females who tested positive for cannabinoid were not significantly different from women who tested negative Table 1.
Table 2 shows that the patients who tested positive for cannabinoids used other illicit drugs more often than patients who tested negative for cannabinoid.
None of the patients in both groups tested positive for amphetamine. Notably, there was no significant difference in the amounts of opioids consumed by users and nonusers of cannabis. Repeat testing was negative and remained negative in some patients, but fluctuated between positive and negative for cannabinoid in others.
All patients who tested positive for cannabinoid admitted smoking cannabis on a regular basis and indicated that the reason for doing this was to achieve better pain relief. Similar to previous reports, 37 , 38 males used cannabis more often than females and the use of cannabis was significantly higher in younger males than males in the control group.
The most important finding in this study is that, patients who tested positive for cannabinoid were admitted to the hospital for the treatment of VOCs significantly more often than patients in the control group, and they were seen significantly less often in the clinic. Neither the placebo effect of cannabis nor the expectations of pain reduction by its users were operative in this study.
It seems the severity of the disease, the use of cannabis, and the use of other illegal drugs conspired to make the disease worse, which required more hospital admissions.
Why this combination makes the disease worse is unknown. A possible reason why the use of cannabis did not decrease the frequency of hospital admissions due to VOC may be the severity of their disease as far as pain is concerned. Patients who tested positive for cannabinoid seem to be a subgroup of patients with severe SCD associated with constantly increasing transmission of painful stimuli associated with central sensitization, glial activation, and rewiring of the brain.
This may explain why these patients used more benzodiazepines, cocaine, and phencyclidine than patients who did not use cannabis. Interestingly the patients with positive urine drug screen for cannabinoid did not use opioids more frequently than the control group.
Another possibility is that the patients smoked cannabis. Utilization of cannabis by other routes may have a better effect; specifically in an experiment with transgenic sickle mice, pain was attenuated when given cannabinoids intraperitoneally. The reason why patients taking cannabis went to the clinic less frequently is not known. One possibility is that the patients believed that the analgesics prescribed by the provider would not be helpful to them anyway.
Another possibility is that since they were in the hospital most of the time, they had less days as outpatients to go to the clinic.
Neurologically the reason why cannabis increased the frequency of VOCs that required hospitalization may be related to the shift from goal-oriented to habit-oriented behavior caused by cannabis.
Cannabinoids exert their action through binding to G-protein receptors located throughout the body. CB1 receptors mediate the psychoactive aspects of cannabinoids and CB2 receptors play a role in pain relief. In clinical terms, this shift may encourage patients to reflexively seek help in the hospital rather than in the clinic.
The longitudinal questionnaire study in Jamaica 38 showed no relation between the use of cannabis and the clinical severity of SCD. This study showed a negative correlation between the use of cannabis and the frequency of VOCs that required hospitalization. Controlled trials that utilize standardized doses of cannabis are needed to clarify the role of cannabinoids in the treatment of sickle cell pain.
Such a trial is in its early phase. Cite this article as: Ballas SK The use of cannabis by patients with sickle cell disease increased the frequency of hospitalization due to vaso-occlusive crises, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research 2: National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Cannabis Cannabinoid Res v. Published online Jul 1. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Introduction The distinguishing insignia of sickle cell disease SCD in general and sickle cell anemia in particular is the recurrent acute painful vaso-occlusive crisis VOC.
Materials and Methods Patients The patients described in this study were adult African Americans with SCD that were followed—up in our sickle cell center from through Laboratory data Types of SCD were initially determined by solubility testing, hemoglobin electrophoresis in alkaline and acidic media, and thin-layer isoelectric focusing, and later, by high-performance liquid chromatography.
Statistical analysis The paired t -test was used to compare the epidemiological data of the patients in the study.
Researchers Raise Funds for Phase 1 Trial to Test Medical Cannabis in Sickle Cell Disease
Studies involving sickle cell anemia and cannabis aren't as plentiful as one would like, but there is hope for the future of people diagnosed with. THC binds preferentially to CB1 receptors and CBD binds preferentially Hydroxyurea and acute painful crises in sickle cell anemia: effects on. Few people realize that sickle cell anemia is actually one of the most common congenital disorders. In fact, we don't even know how many.